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winnet.c

/*
 * Windows networking abstraction.
 *
 * Due to this clean abstraction it was possible
 * to easily implement IPv6 support :)
 *
 * IPv6 patch 1 (27 October 2000) Jeroen Massar <jeroen@unfix.org>
 *  - Preliminary hacked IPv6 support.
 *    - Connecting to IPv6 address (eg fec0:4242:4242:100:2d0:b7ff:fe8f:5d42) works.
 *    - Connecting to IPv6 hostname (eg heaven.ipv6.unfix.org) works.
 *  - Compiles as either IPv4 or IPv6.
 *
 * IPv6 patch 2 (29 October 2000) Jeroen Massar <jeroen@unfix.org>
 *  - When compiled as IPv6 it also allows connecting to IPv4 hosts.
 *  - Added some more documentation.
 *
 * IPv6 patch 3 (18 November 2000) Jeroen Massar <jeroen@unfix.org>
 *  - It now supports dynamically loading the IPv6 resolver dll's.
 *    This way we should be able to distribute one (1) binary
 *    which supports both IPv4 and IPv6.
 *  - getaddrinfo() and getnameinfo() are loaded dynamicaly if possible.
 *  - in6addr_any is defined in this file so we don't need to link to wship6.lib
 *  - The patch is now more unified so that we can still
 *    remove all IPv6 support by undef'ing IPV6.
 *    But where it fallsback to IPv4 it uses the IPv4 code which is already in place...
 *  - Canonical name resolving works.
 *
 * IPv6 patch 4 (07 January 2001) Jeroen Massar <jeroen@unfix.org>
 *  - patch against CVS of today, will be submitted to the bugs list
 *    as a 'cvs diff -u' on Simon's request...
 *
 */

/*
 * Define IPV6 to have IPv6 on-the-fly-loading support.
 * This means that one doesn't have to have an IPv6 stack to use it.
 * But if an IPv6 stack is found it is used with a fallback to IPv4.
 */
/* #define IPV6 1 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <assert.h>

#define DEFINE_PLUG_METHOD_MACROS
#include "putty.h"
#include "network.h"
#include "tree234.h"

#include <ws2tcpip.h>
#ifdef IPV6
#include <tpipv6.h>
#endif

#define ipv4_is_loopback(addr) \
      ((p_ntohl(addr.s_addr) & 0xFF000000L) == 0x7F000000L)

struct Socket_tag {
    const struct socket_function_table *fn;
    /* the above variable absolutely *must* be the first in this structure */
    char *error;
    SOCKET s;
    Plug plug;
    void *private_ptr;
    bufchain output_data;
    int connected;
    int writable;
    int frozen; /* this causes readability notifications to be ignored */
    int frozen_readable; /* this means we missed at least one readability
                    * notification while we were frozen */
    int localhost_only;              /* for listening sockets */
    char oobdata[1];
    int sending_oob;
    int oobinline;
    int pending_error;               /* in case send() returns error */
};

/*
 * We used to typedef struct Socket_tag *Socket.
 *
 * Since we have made the networking abstraction slightly more
 * abstract, Socket no longer means a tcp socket (it could mean
 * an ssl socket).  So now we must use Actual_Socket when we know
 * we are talking about a tcp socket.
 */
typedef struct Socket_tag *Actual_Socket;

struct SockAddr_tag {
    char *error;
    /* 
     * Which address family this address belongs to. AF_INET for
     * IPv4; AF_INET6 for IPv6; AF_UNSPEC indicates that name
     * resolution has not been done and a simple host name is held
     * in this SockAddr structure.
     */
    int family;
    unsigned long address;           /* Address IPv4 style. */
#ifdef IPV6
    struct addrinfo *ai;             /* Address IPv6 style. */
#endif
    char hostname[512];              /* Store an unresolved host name. */
};

static tree234 *sktree;

static int cmpfortree(void *av, void *bv)
{
    Actual_Socket a = (Actual_Socket) av, b = (Actual_Socket) bv;
    unsigned long as = (unsigned long) a->s, bs = (unsigned long) b->s;
    if (as < bs)
      return -1;
    if (as > bs)
      return +1;
    return 0;
}

static int cmpforsearch(void *av, void *bv)
{
    Actual_Socket b = (Actual_Socket) bv;
    unsigned long as = (unsigned long) av, bs = (unsigned long) b->s;
    if (as < bs)
      return -1;
    if (as > bs)
      return +1;
    return 0;
}

#define NOTHING
#define DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(linkage, rettype, name, params) \
    typedef rettype (WINAPI *t_##name) params; \
    linkage t_##name p_##name
#define GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(name) \
    p_##name = (t_##name) GetProcAddress(winsock_module, #name)

DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(NOTHING, int, WSAAsyncSelect,
                  (SOCKET, HWND, u_int, long));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(NOTHING, int, WSAEventSelect, (SOCKET, WSAEVENT, long));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(NOTHING, int, select,
                  (int, fd_set FAR *, fd_set FAR *,
                   fd_set FAR *, const struct timeval FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(NOTHING, int, WSAGetLastError, (void));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(NOTHING, int, WSAEnumNetworkEvents,
                  (SOCKET, WSAEVENT, LPWSANETWORKEVENTS));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, WSAStartup, (WORD, LPWSADATA));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, WSACleanup, (void));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, closesocket, (SOCKET));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, u_long, ntohl, (u_long));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, u_long, htonl, (u_long));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, u_short, htons, (u_short));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, u_short, ntohs, (u_short));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, struct hostent FAR *, gethostbyname,
                  (const char FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, struct servent FAR *, getservbyname,
                  (const char FAR *, const char FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, unsigned long, inet_addr, (const char FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, char FAR *, inet_ntoa, (struct in_addr));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, connect,
                  (SOCKET, const struct sockaddr FAR *, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, bind,
                  (SOCKET, const struct sockaddr FAR *, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, setsockopt,
                  (SOCKET, int, int, const char FAR *, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, SOCKET, socket, (int, int, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, listen, (SOCKET, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, send, (SOCKET, const char FAR *, int, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, ioctlsocket,
                  (SOCKET, long, u_long FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, SOCKET, accept,
                  (SOCKET, struct sockaddr FAR *, int FAR *));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, recv, (SOCKET, char FAR *, int, int));
DECL_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(static, int, WSAIoctl,
                  (SOCKET, DWORD, LPVOID, DWORD, LPVOID, DWORD,
                   LPDWORD, LPWSAOVERLAPPED,
                   LPWSAOVERLAPPED_COMPLETION_ROUTINE));

static HMODULE winsock_module;

void sk_init(void)
{
    WORD winsock_ver;
    WSADATA wsadata;

    winsock_ver = MAKEWORD(2, 0);
    winsock_module = LoadLibrary("WS2_32.DLL");
    if (!winsock_module) {
      winsock_module = LoadLibrary("WSOCK32.DLL");
      winsock_ver = MAKEWORD(1, 1);
    }
    if (!winsock_module)
      fatalbox("Unable to load any WinSock library");

    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAAsyncSelect);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAEventSelect);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(select);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAGetLastError);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAEnumNetworkEvents);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAStartup);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSACleanup);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(closesocket);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(ntohl);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(htonl);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(htons);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(ntohs);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(gethostbyname);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(getservbyname);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(inet_addr);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(inet_ntoa);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(connect);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(bind);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(setsockopt);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(socket);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(listen);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(send);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(ioctlsocket);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(accept);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(recv);
    GET_WINSOCK_FUNCTION(WSAIoctl);

    if (p_WSAStartup(winsock_ver, &wsadata)) {
      fatalbox("Unable to initialise WinSock");
    }
    if (LOBYTE(wsadata.wVersion) != LOBYTE(winsock_ver)) {
        p_WSACleanup();
      fatalbox("WinSock version is incompatible with %d.%d",
             LOBYTE(winsock_ver), HIBYTE(winsock_ver));
    }

    sktree = newtree234(cmpfortree);
}

void sk_cleanup(void)
{
    Actual_Socket s;
    int i;

    if (sktree) {
      for (i = 0; (s = index234(sktree, i)) != NULL; i++) {
          p_closesocket(s->s);
      }
      freetree234(sktree);
      sktree = NULL;
    }

    p_WSACleanup();
    if (winsock_module)
      FreeLibrary(winsock_module);
}

char *winsock_error_string(int error)
{
    switch (error) {
      case WSAEACCES:
      return "Network error: Permission denied";
      case WSAEADDRINUSE:
      return "Network error: Address already in use";
      case WSAEADDRNOTAVAIL:
      return "Network error: Cannot assign requested address";
      case WSAEAFNOSUPPORT:
      return
          "Network error: Address family not supported by protocol family";
      case WSAEALREADY:
      return "Network error: Operation already in progress";
      case WSAECONNABORTED:
      return "Network error: Software caused connection abort";
      case WSAECONNREFUSED:
      return "Network error: Connection refused";
      case WSAECONNRESET:
      return "Network error: Connection reset by peer";
      case WSAEDESTADDRREQ:
      return "Network error: Destination address required";
      case WSAEFAULT:
      return "Network error: Bad address";
      case WSAEHOSTDOWN:
      return "Network error: Host is down";
      case WSAEHOSTUNREACH:
      return "Network error: No route to host";
      case WSAEINPROGRESS:
      return "Network error: Operation now in progress";
      case WSAEINTR:
      return "Network error: Interrupted function call";
      case WSAEINVAL:
      return "Network error: Invalid argument";
      case WSAEISCONN:
      return "Network error: Socket is already connected";
      case WSAEMFILE:
      return "Network error: Too many open files";
      case WSAEMSGSIZE:
      return "Network error: Message too long";
      case WSAENETDOWN:
      return "Network error: Network is down";
      case WSAENETRESET:
      return "Network error: Network dropped connection on reset";
      case WSAENETUNREACH:
      return "Network error: Network is unreachable";
      case WSAENOBUFS:
      return "Network error: No buffer space available";
      case WSAENOPROTOOPT:
      return "Network error: Bad protocol option";
      case WSAENOTCONN:
      return "Network error: Socket is not connected";
      case WSAENOTSOCK:
      return "Network error: Socket operation on non-socket";
      case WSAEOPNOTSUPP:
      return "Network error: Operation not supported";
      case WSAEPFNOSUPPORT:
      return "Network error: Protocol family not supported";
      case WSAEPROCLIM:
      return "Network error: Too many processes";
      case WSAEPROTONOSUPPORT:
      return "Network error: Protocol not supported";
      case WSAEPROTOTYPE:
      return "Network error: Protocol wrong type for socket";
      case WSAESHUTDOWN:
      return "Network error: Cannot send after socket shutdown";
      case WSAESOCKTNOSUPPORT:
      return "Network error: Socket type not supported";
      case WSAETIMEDOUT:
      return "Network error: Connection timed out";
      case WSAEWOULDBLOCK:
      return "Network error: Resource temporarily unavailable";
      case WSAEDISCON:
      return "Network error: Graceful shutdown in progress";
      default:
      return "Unknown network error";
    }
}

SockAddr sk_namelookup(const char *host, char **canonicalname)
{
    SockAddr ret = snew(struct SockAddr_tag);
    unsigned long a;
    struct hostent *h = NULL;
    char realhost[8192];

    /* Clear the structure and default to IPv4. */
    memset(ret, 0, sizeof(struct SockAddr_tag));
    ret->family = 0;                 /* We set this one when we have resolved the host. */
    *realhost = '\0';

    if ((a = p_inet_addr(host)) == (unsigned long) INADDR_NONE) {
#ifdef IPV6

      /* Try to get the getaddrinfo() function from wship6.dll */
      /* This way one doesn't need to have IPv6 dll's to use PuTTY and
       * it will fallback to IPv4. */
      typedef int (CALLBACK * FGETADDRINFO) (const char *nodename,
                                     const char *servname,
                                     const struct addrinfo *
                                     hints,
                                     struct addrinfo ** res);
      FGETADDRINFO fGetAddrInfo = NULL;

      HINSTANCE dllWSHIP6 = LoadLibrary("wship6.dll");
      if (dllWSHIP6)
          fGetAddrInfo = (FGETADDRINFO) GetProcAddress(dllWSHIP6,
                                           "getaddrinfo");

      /*
       * Use fGetAddrInfo when it's available (which usually also
       * means IPv6 is installed...)
       */
      if (fGetAddrInfo) {
          /*debug(("Resolving \"%s\" with getaddrinfo()  (IPv4+IPv6 capable)...\n", host)); */
          if (fGetAddrInfo(host, NULL, NULL, &ret->ai) == 0)
            ret->family = ret->ai->ai_family;
      } else
#endif
      {
          /*
           * Otherwise use the IPv4-only gethostbyname...
           * (NOTE: we don't use gethostbyname as a
           * fallback!)
           */
          if (ret->family == 0) {
            /*debug(("Resolving \"%s\" with gethostbyname() (IPv4 only)...\n", host)); */
            if ( (h = p_gethostbyname(host)) )
                ret->family = AF_INET;
          }
      }
      /*debug(("Done resolving...(family is %d) AF_INET = %d, AF_INET6 = %d\n", ret->family, AF_INET, AF_INET6)); */

      if (ret->family == 0) {
          DWORD err = p_WSAGetLastError();
          ret->error = (err == WSAENETDOWN ? "Network is down" :
                    err ==
                    WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND ? "Host does not exist" : err
                    == WSATRY_AGAIN ? "Host not found" :
#ifdef IPV6
                    fGetAddrInfo ? "getaddrinfo: unknown error" :
#endif
                    "gethostbyname: unknown error");
#ifdef DEBUG
          {
            LPVOID lpMsgBuf;
            FormatMessage(FORMAT_MESSAGE_ALLOCATE_BUFFER |
                        FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM |
                        FORMAT_MESSAGE_IGNORE_INSERTS, NULL, err,
                        MAKELANGID(LANG_NEUTRAL, SUBLANG_DEFAULT),
                        (LPTSTR) & lpMsgBuf, 0, NULL);
            /*debug(("Error %ld: %s (h=%lx)\n", err, lpMsgBuf, h)); */
            /* Free the buffer. */
            LocalFree(lpMsgBuf);
          }
#endif
      } else {
          ret->error = NULL;

#ifdef IPV6
          /* If we got an address info use that... */
          if (ret->ai) {
            typedef int (CALLBACK * FGETNAMEINFO)
             (const struct sockaddr FAR * sa, socklen_t salen,
              char FAR * host, size_t hostlen, char FAR * serv,
              size_t servlen, int flags);
            FGETNAMEINFO fGetNameInfo = NULL;

            /* Are we in IPv4 fallback mode? */
            /* We put the IPv4 address into the a variable so we can further-on use the IPv4 code... */
            if (ret->family == AF_INET)
                memcpy(&a,
                     (char *) &((SOCKADDR_IN *) ret->ai->
                              ai_addr)->sin_addr, sizeof(a));

            /* Now let's find that canonicalname... */
            if ((dllWSHIP6)
                && (fGetNameInfo =
                  (FGETNAMEINFO) GetProcAddress(dllWSHIP6,
                                          "getnameinfo"))) {
                if (fGetNameInfo
                  ((struct sockaddr *) ret->ai->ai_addr,
                   ret->family ==
                   AF_INET ? sizeof(SOCKADDR_IN) :
                   sizeof(SOCKADDR_IN6), realhost,
                   sizeof(realhost), NULL, 0, 0) != 0) {
                  strncpy(realhost, host, sizeof(realhost));
                }
            }
          }
          /* We used the IPv4-only gethostbyname()... */
          else
#endif
          {
            memcpy(&a, h->h_addr, sizeof(a));
            /* This way we are always sure the h->h_name is valid :) */
            strncpy(realhost, h->h_name, sizeof(realhost));
          }
      }
#ifdef IPV6
      FreeLibrary(dllWSHIP6);
#endif
    } else {
      /*
       * This must be a numeric IPv4 address because it caused a
       * success return from inet_addr.
       */
      ret->family = AF_INET;
      strncpy(realhost, host, sizeof(realhost));
    }
    ret->address = p_ntohl(a);
    realhost[lenof(realhost)-1] = '\0';
    *canonicalname = snewn(1+strlen(realhost), char);
    strcpy(*canonicalname, realhost);
    return ret;
}

SockAddr sk_nonamelookup(const char *host)
{
    SockAddr ret = snew(struct SockAddr_tag);
    ret->error = NULL;
    ret->family = AF_UNSPEC;
    strncpy(ret->hostname, host, lenof(ret->hostname));
    ret->hostname[lenof(ret->hostname)-1] = '\0';
    return ret;
}

void sk_getaddr(SockAddr addr, char *buf, int buflen)
{
#ifdef IPV6
    if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
      FIXME; /* I don't know how to get a text form of an IPv6 address. */
    } else
#endif
    if (addr->family == AF_INET) {
      struct in_addr a;
      a.s_addr = p_htonl(addr->address);
      strncpy(buf, p_inet_ntoa(a), buflen);
      buf[buflen-1] = '\0';
    } else {
      assert(addr->family == AF_UNSPEC);
      strncpy(buf, addr->hostname, buflen);
      buf[buflen-1] = '\0';
    }
}

int sk_hostname_is_local(char *name)
{
    return !strcmp(name, "localhost");
}

static INTERFACE_INFO local_interfaces[16];
static int n_local_interfaces;       /* 0=not yet, -1=failed, >0=number */

static int ipv4_is_local_addr(struct in_addr addr)
{
    if (ipv4_is_loopback(addr))
      return 1;                /* loopback addresses are local */
    if (!n_local_interfaces) {
      SOCKET s = p_socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
      DWORD retbytes;

      if (p_WSAIoctl &&
          p_WSAIoctl(s, SIO_GET_INTERFACE_LIST, NULL, 0,
                   local_interfaces, sizeof(local_interfaces),
                   &retbytes, NULL, NULL) == 0)
          n_local_interfaces = retbytes / sizeof(INTERFACE_INFO);
      else
          logevent(NULL, "Unable to get list of local IP addresses");
    }
    if (n_local_interfaces > 0) {
      int i;
      for (i = 0; i < n_local_interfaces; i++) {
          SOCKADDR_IN *address =
            (SOCKADDR_IN *)&local_interfaces[i].iiAddress;
          if (address->sin_addr.s_addr == addr.s_addr)
            return 1;          /* this address is local */
      }
    }
    return 0;                  /* this address is not local */
}

int sk_address_is_local(SockAddr addr)
{
#ifdef IPV6
    if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
      FIXME;  /* someone who can compile for IPV6 had better do this bit */
    } else
#endif
    if (addr->family == AF_INET) {
      struct in_addr a;
      a.s_addr = p_htonl(addr->address);
      return ipv4_is_local_addr(a);
    } else {
      assert(addr->family == AF_UNSPEC);
      return 0;                /* we don't know; assume not */
    }
}

int sk_addrtype(SockAddr addr)
{
    return (addr->family == AF_INET ? ADDRTYPE_IPV4 :
#ifdef IPV6
          addr->family == AF_INET6 ? ADDRTYPE_IPV6 :
#endif
          ADDRTYPE_NAME);
}

void sk_addrcopy(SockAddr addr, char *buf)
{
    assert(addr->family != AF_UNSPEC);
#ifdef IPV6
    if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
      memcpy(buf, (char*) addr->ai, 16);
    } else
#endif
    if (addr->family == AF_INET) {
      struct in_addr a;
      a.s_addr = p_htonl(addr->address);
      memcpy(buf, (char*) &a.s_addr, 4);
    }
}

void sk_addr_free(SockAddr addr)
{
    sfree(addr);
}

static Plug sk_tcp_plug(Socket sock, Plug p)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;
    Plug ret = s->plug;
    if (p)
      s->plug = p;
    return ret;
}

static void sk_tcp_flush(Socket s)
{
    /*
     * We send data to the socket as soon as we can anyway,
     * so we don't need to do anything here.  :-)
     */
}

static void sk_tcp_close(Socket s);
static int sk_tcp_write(Socket s, const char *data, int len);
static int sk_tcp_write_oob(Socket s, const char *data, int len);
static void sk_tcp_set_private_ptr(Socket s, void *ptr);
static void *sk_tcp_get_private_ptr(Socket s);
static void sk_tcp_set_frozen(Socket s, int is_frozen);
static const char *sk_tcp_socket_error(Socket s);

extern char *do_select(SOCKET skt, int startup);

Socket sk_register(void *sock, Plug plug)
{
    static const struct socket_function_table fn_table = {
      sk_tcp_plug,
      sk_tcp_close,
      sk_tcp_write,
      sk_tcp_write_oob,
      sk_tcp_flush,
      sk_tcp_set_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_get_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_set_frozen,
      sk_tcp_socket_error
    };

    DWORD err;
    char *errstr;
    Actual_Socket ret;

    /*
     * Create Socket structure.
     */
    ret = snew(struct Socket_tag);
    ret->fn = &fn_table;
    ret->error = NULL;
    ret->plug = plug;
    bufchain_init(&ret->output_data);
    ret->writable = 1;               /* to start with */
    ret->sending_oob = 0;
    ret->frozen = 1;
    ret->frozen_readable = 0;
    ret->localhost_only = 0;         /* unused, but best init anyway */
    ret->pending_error = 0;

    ret->s = (SOCKET)sock;

    if (ret->s == INVALID_SOCKET) {
      err = p_WSAGetLastError();
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    ret->oobinline = 0;

    /* Set up a select mechanism. This could be an AsyncSelect on a
     * window, or an EventSelect on an event object. */
    errstr = do_select(ret->s, 1);
    if (errstr) {
      ret->error = errstr;
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    add234(sktree, ret);

    return (Socket) ret;
}

Socket sk_new(SockAddr addr, int port, int privport, int oobinline,
            int nodelay, int keepalive, Plug plug)
{
    static const struct socket_function_table fn_table = {
      sk_tcp_plug,
      sk_tcp_close,
      sk_tcp_write,
      sk_tcp_write_oob,
      sk_tcp_flush,
      sk_tcp_set_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_get_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_set_frozen,
      sk_tcp_socket_error
    };

    SOCKET s;
#ifdef IPV6
    SOCKADDR_IN6 a6;
#endif
    SOCKADDR_IN a;
    DWORD err;
    char *errstr;
    Actual_Socket ret;
    short localport;

    /*
     * Create Socket structure.
     */
    ret = snew(struct Socket_tag);
    ret->fn = &fn_table;
    ret->error = NULL;
    ret->plug = plug;
    bufchain_init(&ret->output_data);
    ret->connected = 0;              /* to start with */
    ret->writable = 0;               /* to start with */
    ret->sending_oob = 0;
    ret->frozen = 0;
    ret->frozen_readable = 0;
    ret->localhost_only = 0;         /* unused, but best init anyway */
    ret->pending_error = 0;

    /*
     * Open socket.
     */
    assert(addr->family != AF_UNSPEC);
    s = p_socket(addr->family, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    ret->s = s;

    if (s == INVALID_SOCKET) {
      err = p_WSAGetLastError();
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    ret->oobinline = oobinline;
    if (oobinline) {
      BOOL b = TRUE;
      p_setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_OOBINLINE, (void *) &b, sizeof(b));
    }

    if (nodelay) {
      BOOL b = TRUE;
      p_setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_TCP, TCP_NODELAY, (void *) &b, sizeof(b));
    }

    if (keepalive) {
      BOOL b = TRUE;
      p_setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, (void *) &b, sizeof(b));
    }

    /*
     * Bind to local address.
     */
    if (privport)
      localport = 1023;        /* count from 1023 downwards */
    else
      localport = 0;                 /* just use port 0 (ie winsock picks) */

    /* Loop round trying to bind */
    while (1) {
      int retcode;

#ifdef IPV6
      if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
          memset(&a6, 0, sizeof(a6));
          a6.sin6_family = AF_INET6;
/*a6.sin6_addr      = in6addr_any; *//* == 0 */
          a6.sin6_port = p_htons(localport);
      } else
#endif
      {
          a.sin_family = AF_INET;
          a.sin_addr.s_addr = p_htonl(INADDR_ANY);
          a.sin_port = p_htons(localport);
      }
#ifdef IPV6
      retcode = p_bind(s, (addr->family == AF_INET6 ?
                     (struct sockaddr *) &a6 :
                     (struct sockaddr *) &a),
                   (addr->family ==
                  AF_INET6 ? sizeof(a6) : sizeof(a)));
#else
      retcode = p_bind(s, (struct sockaddr *) &a, sizeof(a));
#endif
      if (retcode != SOCKET_ERROR) {
          err = 0;
          break;               /* done */
      } else {
          err = p_WSAGetLastError();
          if (err != WSAEADDRINUSE)  /* failed, for a bad reason */
            break;
      }

      if (localport == 0)
          break;               /* we're only looping once */
      localport--;
      if (localport == 0)
          break;               /* we might have got to the end */
    }

    if (err) {
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    /*
     * Connect to remote address.
     */
#ifdef IPV6
    if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
      memset(&a, 0, sizeof(a));
      a6.sin6_family = AF_INET6;
      a6.sin6_port = p_htons((short) port);
      a6.sin6_addr =
          ((struct sockaddr_in6 *) addr->ai->ai_addr)->sin6_addr;
    } else
#endif
    {
      a.sin_family = AF_INET;
      a.sin_addr.s_addr = p_htonl(addr->address);
      a.sin_port = p_htons((short) port);
    }

    /* Set up a select mechanism. This could be an AsyncSelect on a
     * window, or an EventSelect on an event object. */
    errstr = do_select(s, 1);
    if (errstr) {
      ret->error = errstr;
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    if ((
#ifdef IPV6
          p_connect(s, ((addr->family == AF_INET6) ?
                  (struct sockaddr *) &a6 : (struct sockaddr *) &a),
                (addr->family == AF_INET6) ? sizeof(a6) : sizeof(a))
#else
          p_connect(s, (struct sockaddr *) &a, sizeof(a))
#endif
      ) == SOCKET_ERROR) {
      err = p_WSAGetLastError();
      /*
       * We expect a potential EWOULDBLOCK here, because the
       * chances are the front end has done a select for
       * FD_CONNECT, so that connect() will complete
       * asynchronously.
       */
      if ( err != WSAEWOULDBLOCK ) {
          ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
          return (Socket) ret;
      }
    } else {
      /*
       * If we _don't_ get EWOULDBLOCK, the connect has completed
       * and we should set the socket as writable.
       */
      ret->writable = 1;
    }

    add234(sktree, ret);

    /* We're done with 'addr' now. */
    sk_addr_free(addr);

    return (Socket) ret;
}

Socket sk_newlistener(char *srcaddr, int port, Plug plug, int local_host_only)
{
    static const struct socket_function_table fn_table = {
      sk_tcp_plug,
      sk_tcp_close,
      sk_tcp_write,
      sk_tcp_write_oob,
      sk_tcp_flush,
      sk_tcp_set_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_get_private_ptr,
      sk_tcp_set_frozen,
      sk_tcp_socket_error
    };

    SOCKET s;
#ifdef IPV6
    SOCKADDR_IN6 a6;
#endif
    SOCKADDR_IN a;
    DWORD err;
    char *errstr;
    Actual_Socket ret;
    int retcode;
    int on = 1;

    /*
     * Create Socket structure.
     */
    ret = snew(struct Socket_tag);
    ret->fn = &fn_table;
    ret->error = NULL;
    ret->plug = plug;
    bufchain_init(&ret->output_data);
    ret->writable = 0;               /* to start with */
    ret->sending_oob = 0;
    ret->frozen = 0;
    ret->frozen_readable = 0;
    ret->localhost_only = local_host_only;
    ret->pending_error = 0;

    /*
     * Open socket.
     */
    s = p_socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    ret->s = s;

    if (s == INVALID_SOCKET) {
      err = p_WSAGetLastError();
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    ret->oobinline = 0;

    p_setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, (const char *)&on, sizeof(on));

#ifdef IPV6
      if (addr->family == AF_INET6) {
          memset(&a6, 0, sizeof(a6));
          a6.sin6_family = AF_INET6;
          /* FIXME: srcaddr is ignored for IPv6, because I (SGT) don't
           * know how to do it. :-) */
          if (local_host_only)
            a6.sin6_addr = in6addr_loopback;
          else
            a6.sin6_addr = in6addr_any;
          a6.sin6_port = p_htons(port);
      } else
#endif
      {
          int got_addr = 0;
          a.sin_family = AF_INET;

          /*
           * Bind to source address. First try an explicitly
           * specified one...
           */
          if (srcaddr) {
            a.sin_addr.s_addr = p_inet_addr(srcaddr);
            if (a.sin_addr.s_addr != INADDR_NONE) {
                /* Override localhost_only with specified listen addr. */
                ret->localhost_only = ipv4_is_loopback(a.sin_addr);
                got_addr = 1;
            }
          }

          /*
           * ... and failing that, go with one of the standard ones.
           */
          if (!got_addr) {
            if (local_host_only)
                a.sin_addr.s_addr = p_htonl(INADDR_LOOPBACK);
            else
                a.sin_addr.s_addr = p_htonl(INADDR_ANY);
          }

          a.sin_port = p_htons((short)port);
      }
#ifdef IPV6
      retcode = p_bind(s, (addr->family == AF_INET6 ?
                     (struct sockaddr *) &a6 :
                     (struct sockaddr *) &a),
                   (addr->family ==
                  AF_INET6 ? sizeof(a6) : sizeof(a)));
#else
      retcode = p_bind(s, (struct sockaddr *) &a, sizeof(a));
#endif
      if (retcode != SOCKET_ERROR) {
          err = 0;
      } else {
          err = p_WSAGetLastError();
      }

    if (err) {
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }


    if (p_listen(s, SOMAXCONN) == SOCKET_ERROR) {
        p_closesocket(s);
      ret->error = winsock_error_string(err);
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    /* Set up a select mechanism. This could be an AsyncSelect on a
     * window, or an EventSelect on an event object. */
    errstr = do_select(s, 1);
    if (errstr) {
      ret->error = errstr;
      return (Socket) ret;
    }

    add234(sktree, ret);

    return (Socket) ret;
}

static void sk_tcp_close(Socket sock)
{
    extern char *do_select(SOCKET skt, int startup);
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;

    del234(sktree, s);
    do_select(s->s, 0);
    p_closesocket(s->s);
    sfree(s);
}

/*
 * The function which tries to send on a socket once it's deemed
 * writable.
 */
void try_send(Actual_Socket s)
{
    while (s->sending_oob || bufchain_size(&s->output_data) > 0) {
      int nsent;
      DWORD err;
      void *data;
      int len, urgentflag;

      if (s->sending_oob) {
          urgentflag = MSG_OOB;
          len = s->sending_oob;
          data = &s->oobdata;
      } else {
          urgentflag = 0;
          bufchain_prefix(&s->output_data, &data, &len);
      }
      nsent = p_send(s->s, data, len, urgentflag);
      noise_ultralight(nsent);
      if (nsent <= 0) {
          err = (nsent < 0 ? p_WSAGetLastError() : 0);
          if ((err < WSABASEERR && nsent < 0) || err == WSAEWOULDBLOCK) {
            /*
             * Perfectly normal: we've sent all we can for the moment.
             * 
             * (Some WinSock send() implementations can return
             * <0 but leave no sensible error indication -
             * WSAGetLastError() is called but returns zero or
             * a small number - so we check that case and treat
             * it just like WSAEWOULDBLOCK.)
             */
            s->writable = FALSE;
            return;
          } else if (nsent == 0 ||
                   err == WSAECONNABORTED || err == WSAECONNRESET) {
            /*
             * If send() returns CONNABORTED or CONNRESET, we
             * unfortunately can't just call plug_closing(),
             * because it's quite likely that we're currently
             * _in_ a call from the code we'd be calling back
             * to, so we'd have to make half the SSH code
             * reentrant. Instead we flag a pending error on
             * the socket, to be dealt with (by calling
             * plug_closing()) at some suitable future moment.
             */
            s->pending_error = err;
            return;
          } else {
            /* We're inside the Windows frontend here, so we know
             * that the frontend handle is unnecessary. */
            logevent(NULL, winsock_error_string(err));
            fatalbox("%s", winsock_error_string(err));
          }
      } else {
          if (s->sending_oob) {
            if (nsent < len) {
                memmove(s->oobdata, s->oobdata+nsent, len-nsent);
                s->sending_oob = len - nsent;
            } else {
                s->sending_oob = 0;
            }
          } else {
            bufchain_consume(&s->output_data, nsent);
          }
      }
    }
}

static int sk_tcp_write(Socket sock, const char *buf, int len)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;

    /*
     * Add the data to the buffer list on the socket.
     */
    bufchain_add(&s->output_data, buf, len);

    /*
     * Now try sending from the start of the buffer list.
     */
    if (s->writable)
      try_send(s);

    return bufchain_size(&s->output_data);
}

static int sk_tcp_write_oob(Socket sock, const char *buf, int len)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;

    /*
     * Replace the buffer list on the socket with the data.
     */
    bufchain_clear(&s->output_data);
    assert(len <= sizeof(s->oobdata));
    memcpy(s->oobdata, buf, len);
    s->sending_oob = len;

    /*
     * Now try sending from the start of the buffer list.
     */
    if (s->writable)
      try_send(s);

    return s->sending_oob;
}

int select_result(WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    int ret, open;
    DWORD err;
    char buf[20480];                 /* nice big buffer for plenty of speed */
    Actual_Socket s;
    u_long atmark;

    /* wParam is the socket itself */

    if (wParam == 0)
      return 1;                /* boggle */

    s = find234(sktree, (void *) wParam, cmpforsearch);
    if (!s)
      return 1;                /* boggle */

    if ((err = WSAGETSELECTERROR(lParam)) != 0) {
      /*
       * An error has occurred on this socket. Pass it to the
       * plug.
       */
      return plug_closing(s->plug, winsock_error_string(err), err, 0);
    }

    noise_ultralight(lParam);

    switch (WSAGETSELECTEVENT(lParam)) {
      case FD_CONNECT:
      s->connected = s->writable = 1;
      break;
      case FD_READ:
      /* In the case the socket is still frozen, we don't even bother */
      if (s->frozen) {
          s->frozen_readable = 1;
          break;
      }

      /*
       * We have received data on the socket. For an oobinline
       * socket, this might be data _before_ an urgent pointer,
       * in which case we send it to the back end with type==1
       * (data prior to urgent).
       */
      if (s->oobinline) {
          atmark = 1;
          p_ioctlsocket(s->s, SIOCATMARK, &atmark);
          /*
           * Avoid checking the return value from ioctlsocket(),
           * on the grounds that some WinSock wrappers don't
           * support it. If it does nothing, we get atmark==1,
           * which is equivalent to `no OOB pending', so the
           * effect will be to non-OOB-ify any OOB data.
           */
      } else
          atmark = 1;

      ret = p_recv(s->s, buf, sizeof(buf), 0);
      noise_ultralight(ret);
      if (ret < 0) {
          err = p_WSAGetLastError();
          if (err == WSAEWOULDBLOCK) {
            break;
          }
      }
      if (ret < 0) {
          return plug_closing(s->plug, winsock_error_string(err), err,
                        0);
      } else if (0 == ret) {
          return plug_closing(s->plug, NULL, 0, 0);
      } else {
          return plug_receive(s->plug, atmark ? 0 : 1, buf, ret);
      }
      break;
      case FD_OOB:
      /*
       * This will only happen on a non-oobinline socket. It
       * indicates that we can immediately perform an OOB read
       * and get back OOB data, which we will send to the back
       * end with type==2 (urgent data).
       */
      ret = p_recv(s->s, buf, sizeof(buf), MSG_OOB);
      noise_ultralight(ret);
      if (ret <= 0) {
          char *str = (ret == 0 ? "Internal networking trouble" :
                   winsock_error_string(p_WSAGetLastError()));
          /* We're inside the Windows frontend here, so we know
           * that the frontend handle is unnecessary. */
          logevent(NULL, str);
          fatalbox("%s", str);
      } else {
          return plug_receive(s->plug, 2, buf, ret);
      }
      break;
      case FD_WRITE:
      {
          int bufsize_before, bufsize_after;
          s->writable = 1;
          bufsize_before = s->sending_oob + bufchain_size(&s->output_data);
          try_send(s);
          bufsize_after = s->sending_oob + bufchain_size(&s->output_data);
          if (bufsize_after < bufsize_before)
            plug_sent(s->plug, bufsize_after);
      }
      break;
      case FD_CLOSE:
      /* Signal a close on the socket. First read any outstanding data. */
      open = 1;
      do {
          ret = p_recv(s->s, buf, sizeof(buf), 0);
          if (ret < 0) {
            err = p_WSAGetLastError();
            if (err == WSAEWOULDBLOCK)
                break;
            return plug_closing(s->plug, winsock_error_string(err),
                            err, 0);
          } else {
            if (ret)
                open &= plug_receive(s->plug, 0, buf, ret);
            else
                open &= plug_closing(s->plug, NULL, 0, 0);
          }
      } while (ret > 0);
      return open;
       case FD_ACCEPT:
      {
          struct sockaddr_in isa;
          int addrlen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
          SOCKET t;  /* socket of connection */

          memset(&isa, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
          err = 0;
          t = p_accept(s->s,(struct sockaddr *)&isa,&addrlen);
          if (t == INVALID_SOCKET)
          {
            err = p_WSAGetLastError();
            if (err == WSATRY_AGAIN)
                break;
          }

          if (s->localhost_only && !ipv4_is_local_addr(isa.sin_addr)) {
            p_closesocket(t);      /* dodgy WinSock let nonlocal through */
          } else if (plug_accepting(s->plug, (void*)t)) {
            p_closesocket(t);      /* denied or error */
          }
      }
    }

    return 1;
}

/*
 * Deal with socket errors detected in try_send().
 */
void net_pending_errors(void)
{
    int i;
    Actual_Socket s;

    /*
     * This might be a fiddly business, because it's just possible
     * that handling a pending error on one socket might cause
     * others to be closed. (I can't think of any reason this might
     * happen in current SSH implementation, but to maintain
     * generality of this network layer I'll assume the worst.)
     * 
     * So what we'll do is search the socket list for _one_ socket
     * with a pending error, and then handle it, and then search
     * the list again _from the beginning_. Repeat until we make a
     * pass with no socket errors present. That way we are
     * protected against the socket list changing under our feet.
     */

    do {
      for (i = 0; (s = index234(sktree, i)) != NULL; i++) {
          if (s->pending_error) {
            /*
             * An error has occurred on this socket. Pass it to the
             * plug.
             */
            plug_closing(s->plug,
                       winsock_error_string(s->pending_error),
                       s->pending_error, 0);
            break;
          }
      }
    } while (s);
}

/*
 * Each socket abstraction contains a `void *' private field in
 * which the client can keep state.
 */
static void sk_tcp_set_private_ptr(Socket sock, void *ptr)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;
    s->private_ptr = ptr;
}

static void *sk_tcp_get_private_ptr(Socket sock)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;
    return s->private_ptr;
}

/*
 * Special error values are returned from sk_namelookup and sk_new
 * if there's a problem. These functions extract an error message,
 * or return NULL if there's no problem.
 */
const char *sk_addr_error(SockAddr addr)
{
    return addr->error;
}
static const char *sk_tcp_socket_error(Socket sock)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;
    return s->error;
}

static void sk_tcp_set_frozen(Socket sock, int is_frozen)
{
    Actual_Socket s = (Actual_Socket) sock;
    if (s->frozen == is_frozen)
      return;
    s->frozen = is_frozen;
    if (!is_frozen && s->frozen_readable) {
      char c;
      p_recv(s->s, &c, 1, MSG_PEEK);
    }
    s->frozen_readable = 0;
}

/*
 * For Plink: enumerate all sockets currently active.
 */
SOCKET first_socket(int *state)
{
    Actual_Socket s;
    *state = 0;
    s = index234(sktree, (*state)++);
    return s ? s->s : INVALID_SOCKET;
}

SOCKET next_socket(int *state)
{
    Actual_Socket s = index234(sktree, (*state)++);
    return s ? s->s : INVALID_SOCKET;
}

int net_service_lookup(char *service)
{
    struct servent *se;
    se = p_getservbyname(service, NULL);
    if (se != NULL)
      return p_ntohs(se->s_port);
    else
      return 0;
}

SockAddr platform_get_x11_unix_address(int displaynum, char **canonicalname)
{
    SockAddr ret = snew(struct SockAddr_tag);
    memset(ret, 0, sizeof(struct SockAddr_tag));
    ret->error = "unix sockets not supported on this platform";
    return ret;
}

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